1 King of Persia; 2 The choice; 3 In the name of God; 4 Flying; 5 A farewell that wasn't meant to be; 6 Children of the light; 7 Siren call; 8 Live to tell the tale. Xerxes: King Of Persia | Abbott, Jacob | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. The warres of Cyrus against Antiochus by King of Persia Cyrus(Book) 1 edition published in in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide.
King of PersiaKing Of Persia enthält alle Ingredienzien die Fans von Sonata Arctica, Stratovarius, Rhapsody oder Thunderstone von einem hochwertigen Album erwarten. Xerxes: King Of Persia | Abbott, Jacob | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. 1 King of Persia; 2 The choice; 3 In the name of God; 4 Flying; 5 A farewell that wasn't meant to be; 6 Children of the light; 7 Siren call; 8 Live to tell the tale.
King Of Persia Navigation menu VideoSymphonity - King of Persia (Limb Music) [Full Album] The warres of Cyrus against Antiochus by King of Persia Cyrus(Book) 1 edition published in in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide. Übersetzung im Kontext von „king of persia“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: In BC Cambyses II, the king of Persia, invaded Egypt. King Of Persia enthält alle Ingredienzien die Fans von Sonata Arctica, Stratovarius, Rhapsody oder Thunderstone von einem hochwertigen Album erwarten. Xerxes: King Of Persia | Abbott, Jacob | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. The Dateien Auf Kindle übertragen of Cyrus against Antiochus by King of Persia Cyrus Book The Good Doctor edition published in in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide. Karl Friedrich Becker's Weltgeschichte : Mit den Fortsetzungen von J. Ohne Anmeldung wird Ihre Rezension anonym veröffentlicht.
They were to gather outside the palace, mounted on their horses at sunrise, and the man whose horse neighed first in recognition of the rising sun would become king.
According to Herodotus, Darius had a slave, Oebares, who rubbed his hand over the genitals of a mare that Darius's horse favored.
When the six gathered, Oebares placed his hands beside the nostrils of Darius' horse, who became excited at the scent and neighed. This was followed by lightning and thunder, leading the others to dismount and kneel before Darius in recognition of his apparent divine providence.
According to the accounts of Greek historians, Cambyses II had left Patizeithes in charge of the kingdom when he headed for Egypt. He later sent Prexaspes to murder Bardiya.
After the killing, Patizeithes put his brother Gaumata, a Magian who resembled Bardiya, on the throne and declared him the Great King.
Otanes discovered that Gaumata was an impostor, and along with six other Iranian nobles including Darius, created a plan to oust the pseudo-Bardiya.
After killing the impostor along with his brother Patizeithes and other Magians, Darius was crowned king the following morning.
The details regarding Darius' rise to power is generally acknowledged as forgery and was in reality used as a concealment of his overthrow and murder of Cyrus' rightful successor, Bardiya.
Following his coronation at Pasargadae , Darius moved to Ecbatana. He soon learned that support for Bardiya was strong, and revolts in Elam and Babylonia had broken out.
After three months the revolt in Babylonia had ended. While in Babylonia, Darius learned a revolution had broken out in Bactria , a satrapy which had always been in favour of Darius, and had initially volunteered an army of soldiers to quell revolts.
Following this, revolts broke out in Persis , the homeland of the Persians and Darius and then in Elam and Babylonia, followed by in Media , Parthia , Assyria , and Egypt.
By BCE, there were revolts against Darius in most parts of the Achaemenid Empire leaving the empire in turmoil. Even though Darius did not seem to have the support of the populace , Darius had a loyal army, led by close confidants and nobles including the six nobles who had helped him remove Gaumata.
With their support, Darius was able to suppress and quell all revolts within a year. In Darius's words, he had killed a total of nine "lying kings" through the quelling of revolutions.
One of the significant events of Darius's early reign was the slaying of Intaphernes , one of the seven noblemen who had deposed the previous ruler and installed Darius as the new monarch.
The officers went to the king and showed him what Intaphernes had done to them. Darius began to fear for his own safety; he thought that all seven noblemen had banded together to rebel against him and that the attack against his officers was the first sign of revolt.
He sent a messenger to each of the noblemen, asking them if they approved of Intaphernes's actions. They denied and disavowed any connection with Intaphernes's actions, stating that they stood by their decision to appoint Darius as King of Kings.
Darius' choice to ask the noblemen indicates that he was not yet completely sure of his authority. Taking precautions against further resistance, Darius sent soldiers to seize Intaphernes, along with his son, family members, relatives and any friends who were capable of arming themselves.
Darius believed that Intaphernes was planning a rebellion, but when he was brought to the court, there was no proof of any such plan.
Nonetheless, Darius killed Intaphernes's entire family, excluding his wife's brother and son. She was asked to choose between her brother and son.
She chose her brother to live. Her reasoning for doing so was that she could have another husband and another son, but she would always have but one brother.
Darius was impressed by her response and spared both her brother's and her son's life. After securing his authority over the entire empire , Darius embarked on a campaign to Egypt where he defeated the armies of the Pharaoh and secured the lands that Cambyses had conquered while incorporating a large portion of Egypt into the Achaemenid Empire.
Through another series of campaigns, Darius I would eventually reign over the territorial apex of the empire, when it stretched from parts of the Balkans Thrace - Macedonia , Bulgaria - Paeonia in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.
In BCE, Darius embarked on a campaign to Central Asia, Aria and Bactria and then marched into Afghanistan to Taxila in modern-day Pakistan.
Darius spent the winter of — BCE in Gandhara , preparing to conquer the Indus Valley. Darius conquered the lands surrounding the Indus River in BCE.
Darius I controlled the Indus Valley from Gandhara to modern Karachi and appointed the Greek Scylax of Caryanda to explore the Indian Ocean from the mouth of the Indus to Suez.
Darius then marched through the Bolan Pass and returned through Arachosia and Drangiana back to Persia. After Bardiya was murdered, widespread revolts occurred throughout the empire , especially on the eastern side.
Darius asserted his position as king by force, taking his armies throughout the empire, suppressing each revolt individually.
The most notable of all these revolts was the Babylonian revolt which was led by Nebuchadnezzar III. This revolt occurred when Otanes withdrew much of the army from Babylon to aid Darius in suppressing other revolts.
Darius felt that the Babylonian people had taken advantage of him and deceived him, which resulted in Darius gathering a large army and marching to Babylon.
At Babylon, Darius was met with closed gates and a series of defences to keep him and his armies out. Darius encountered mockery and taunting from the rebels, including the famous saying "Oh yes, you will capture our city, when mules shall have foals.
However, the situation changed in Darius's favour when, according to the story, a mule owned by Zopyrus , a high-ranking soldier, foaled.
Following this, a plan was hatched for Zopyrus to pretend to be a deserter, enter the Babylonian camp, and gain the trust of the Babylonians.
The plan was successful and Darius's army eventually surrounded the city and overcame the rebels. During this revolt, Scythian nomads took advantage of the disorder and chaos and invaded Persia.
Darius first finished defeating the rebels in Elam, Assyria, and Babylon and then attacked the Scythian invaders. He pursued the invaders, who led him to a marsh; there he found no known enemies but an enigmatic Scythian tribe.
The Scythians were a group of north Iranian nomadic tribes, speaking an Iranian language Scythian languages who had invaded Media , killed Cyrus in battle, revolted against Darius and threatened to disrupt trade between Central Asia and the shores of the Black Sea as they lived between the Danube River, River Don and the Black Sea.
Darius crossed the Black Sea at the Bosphorus Straits using a bridge of boats. Darius conquered large portions of Eastern Europe, even crossing the Danube to wage war on the Scythians.
Darius invaded European Scythia in BC,  where the Scythians evaded Darius's army, using feints and retreating eastwards while laying waste to the countryside, by blocking wells, intercepting convoys, destroying pastures and continuous skirmishes against Darius's army.
In frustration Darius sent a letter to the Scythian ruler Idanthyrsus to fight or surrender. The ruler replied that he would not stand and fight with Darius until they found the graves of their fathers and tried to destroy them.
Until then, they would continue their strategy as they had no cities or cultivated lands to lose. Despite the evading tactics of the Scythians, Darius' campaign was so far relatively successful.
Darius eventually ordered a halt at the banks of Oarus, where he built "eight great forts, some eight miles distant from each other", no doubt as a frontier defence.
Concerned about losing more of his troops, Darius halted the march at the banks of the Volga River and headed towards Thrace. Darius's European expedition was a major event in his reign, which began with the invasion of Thrace.
Darius also conquered many cities of the northern Aegean, Paeonia , while Macedonia submitted voluntarily, after the demand of earth and water , becoming a vassal kingdom.
The Greeks living in Asia Minor and some of the Greek islands had submitted to Persian rule already by BCE.
Nonetheless, there were certain Greeks who were pro-Persian, although these were largely based in Athens.
To improve Greek-Persian relations, Darius opened his court and treasuries to those Greeks who wanted to serve him. These Greeks served as soldiers, artisans, statesmen and mariners for Darius.
However, the increasing concerns amongst the Greeks over the strength of Darius's kingdom along with the constant interference by the Greeks in Ionia and Lydia were stepping stones towards the conflict that was yet to come between Persia and certain of the leading Greek city states.
When Aristagoras organized the Ionian Revolt , Eretria and Athens supported him by sending ships and troops to Ionia and by burning Sardis.
Persian military and naval operations to quell the revolt ended in the Persian reoccupation of Ionian and Greek islands, as well as the re-subjugation of Thrace and the conquering of Macedonia in BC under Mardonius.
Mardonius' campaign made it a fully subordinate part of the Persian kingdom. At the same time, anti-Persian parties gained more power in Athens, and pro-Persian aristocrats were exiled from Athens and Sparta.
Darius responded by sending troops led by his son-in-law across the Hellespont. However, a violent storm and harassment by the Thracians forced the troops to return to Persia.
Seeking revenge on Athens and Eretria, Darius assembled another army of 20, men under his Admiral, Datis , and his nephew Artaphernes , who met success when they captured Eretria and advanced to Marathon.
In BCE, at the Battle of Marathon , the Persian army was defeated by a heavily armed Athenian army, with 9, men who were supported by Plataeans and 10, lightly armed soldiers led by Miltiades.
The defeat at Marathon marked the end of the first Persian invasion of Greece. Darius began preparations for a second force which he would command, instead of his generals; however, before the preparations were complete, Darius died, thus leaving the task to his son Xerxes.
Darius was the son of Hystaspes and the grandson of Arsames. He also married Artystone , another daughter of Cyrus, with whom he had two sons, Arsames and Gobryas.
Darius married Parmys , the daughter of Bardiya, with whom he had a son, Ariomardus. Furthermore, Darius married Phratagune, with whom he had two sons, Abrokomas and Hyperantes.
He also married another woman of the nobility, Phaidyme, the daughter of Otanes. It is unknown if he had any children with her. Before these royal marriages, Darius had married an unknown daughter of his good friend and lance carrier Gobryas from an early marriage, with whom he had three sons, Artobazanes, Ariabignes and Arsamenes.
Although Artobazanes was Darius's first-born, Xerxes became heir and the next king through the influence of Atossa ; she had great authority in the kingdom as Darius loved her the most of all his wives.
After becoming aware of the Persian defeat at the Battle of Marathon , Darius began planning another expedition against the Greek-city states; this time, he, not Datis, would command the imperial armies.
This revolt in Egypt worsened his failing health and prevented the possibility of his leading another army. In October BCE, his body was embalmed and entombed in the rock-cut tomb at Naqsh-e Rostam , which he had been preparing.
Xerxes, the eldest son of Darius and Atossa , succeeded to the throne as Xerxes I ; before his accession, he had contested the succession with his elder half-brother Artobarzanes, Darius's eldest son, who was born to his first wife before Darius rose to power.
Early in his reign, Darius wanted to reorganize the structure of the empire and reform the system of taxation he inherited from Cyrus and Cambyses.
To do this, Darius created twenty provinces called satrapies or archi which were each assigned to a satrap archon and specified fixed tributes that the satrapies were required to pay.
Tributes in silver from each satrap were measured with the Babylonian talent. The majority of the satraps were of Persian origin and were members of the royal house or the six great noble families.
Each of these provinces were divided into sub-provinces with their own governors which were chosen either by the royal court or by the satrap.
The imperial administration was coordinated by the chancery with headquarters at Persepolis, Susa, and Babylon with Bactria, Ecbatana, Sardis, Dascylium and Memphis having branches.
Darius introduced a new universal currency, the daric , sometime before BCE. The Daric was also recognized beyond the borders of the empire, in places such as Celtic Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
There were two types of darics, a gold daric and a silver daric. Only the king could mint gold darics.
Important generals and satraps minted silver darics, the latter usually to recruit Greek mercenaries in Anatolia. The daric was a major boost to international trade.
Trade goods such as textiles, carpets, tools and metal objects began to travel throughout Asia, Europe and Africa.
To further improve trade, Darius built the Royal Road , a postal system and Phoenician-based commercial shipping.
The daric also improved government revenues as the introduction of the daric made it easier to collect new taxes on land, livestock and marketplaces.
This led to the registration of land which was measured and then taxed. The increased government revenues helped maintain and improve existing infrastructure and helped fund irrigation projects in dry lands.
This new tax system also led to the formation of state banking and the creation of banking firms. One of the most famous banking firms was Murashu Sons , based in the Babylonian city of Nippur.
In an effort to further improve trade, Darius built canals, underground waterways and a powerful navy. While there is no general consensus in scholarship whether Darius and his predecessors had been influenced by Zoroastrianism ,  it is well established that Darius was a firm believer in Ahura Mazda , whom he saw as the supreme deity.
Darius had dualistic philosophical convictions and believed that each rebellion in his kingdom was the work of druj, the enemy of Asha.
Darius believed that because he lived righteously by Asha, Ahura Mazda supported him. In the lands that were conquered by his empire, Darius followed the same Achaemenid tolerance that Cyrus had shown and later Achaemenid kings would show.
During Darius's Greek expedition , he had begun construction projects in Susa , Egypt and Persepolis. To open this canal, he travelled to Egypt in BCE, where the inauguration was carried out with great fanfare and celebration.
Darius also built a canal to connect the Red Sea and Mediterranean. When Darius returned to Persis, he found that the codification of Egyptian law had been finished.
Additionally, Darius sponsored large construction projects in Susa, Babylon , Egypt, and Persepolis. In Susa, Darius built a new palace complex in the north of the city.
An inscription states that the palace was destroyed during the reign of Artaxerxes I , but was rebuilt. Today only glazed bricks of the palace remain, the majority of them in the Louvre.
In Pasargadae Darius finished all incomplete construction projects from the reign of Cyrus the Great. A palace was also built during the reign of Darius, with an inscription in the name of Cyrus the Great.
It was previously believed that Cyrus had constructed this building, however due to the cuneiform script being used, the palace is believed to have been constructed by Darius.
In Egypt Darius built many temples and restored those that had previously been destroyed. Even though Darius was a believer of Ahura Mazda, he built temples dedicated to the Gods of the Ancient Egyptian religion.
Several temples found were dedicated to Ptah and Nekhbet. King of Anshan King of Persia King of Media King of the World King of Kings Great King Mighty King King of Babylon King of Sumer and Akkad King of the Four Corners of the World.
Cyrus the Great with a Hemhem crown , or four-winged Cherub tutelary divinity, from a relief in the residence of Cyrus in Pasagardae.
Campaigns of Cyrus the Great. Battles as a satrap Battle of the Assyrian camp [ citation needed ] Persian revolt Battle of Hyrba Battle of the Persian Border Invasion of Anatolia Battle of Pteria Battle of Thymbra Siege of Sardis Invasion of Babylonia Battle of Opis Siege of Babylon.
Further information: Cyrus. See also: Achaemenes , Achaemenid family tree , and Teispids. Further information: Battle of Pteria , Battle of Thymbra , and Siege of Sardis BC.
Further information: Battle of Opis. Main article: Tomb of Cyrus. Main articles: Cyrus the Great in the Bible and Cyrus the Great in the Quran.
Main article: Cyrus Cylinder. Further information: the full Achaemenid family tree. Cyrus family tree . Achaemenes King of Persia.
Ruler of Persia [i]. Persia and the Persian Question. Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge history of Iran: The Median and Achaemenian periods.
IX; see also M. Dandamaev "Cyrus II", in Encyclopaedia Iranica. The Ancient Near East: c. The quote is from the Greek historian Herodotus.
Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Parker and W. Dubberstein, Babylonian Chronology B. The Classical Quarterly. Cyrus the Great Cyrus's religious policies.
See also: G. Buchaman Gray and D. Litt, The foundation and extension of the Persian empire , Chapter I in The Cambridge Ancient History Vol.
IV , 2nd edition, published by The University Press, Excerpt: The administration of the empire through satrap, and much more belonging to the form or spirit of the government, was the work of Cyrus Retrieved 26 January Birth of the Persian Empire.
The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. Holliday Defining Iran: Politics of Resistance.
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century BC: A Study in Cultural Receptivity.
Barbara T. Cambridge University Press, British Museum. Retrieved 21 September The Guardian. Associated Press.
Archived from the original on 22 September The History of Iran. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. Biblical Archaeology: Documents from the British Museum.
London: Cambridge University Press. In Chavelas, Mark W. The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation. London: Blackwell. Retrieved 8 February Potts, Birth of the Persian Empire, Vol.
The clan and dynasty. Cyrus Cylinder Fragment A. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Naming the grandson after the grandfather was a common practice among Iranians.
Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. Kohl; Ronald G. Witt; Elizabeth B. Welles The Earthly republic: Italian humanists on government and society.
Manchester University Press ND. Retrieved 1 September Sparda by the bitter sea: imperial interaction in western Anatolia. Scholars Press.
Sahbazi, "Arsama", in Encyclopaedia Iranica. Translated by George Rawlinson. John Boardman. The Reign of Nabonidus, King of Babylon — B.
New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Mesopotamian civilization: the material foundations.
Cornell University Press. Retrieved 30 December Bike; Smith, Adam T. The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and Revolutions. The Empire of the Steppes.
Rutgers University Press. The historian's craft in the age of Herodotus. Oxford University Press US. The Cambridge history of Iran: The Median and Achaemenian periods, Volume 2.
Chronicle of Michael the Great, Patriarch of the Syrians — via Internet Archive. Dandamaev, "Cyrus II", in Encyclopaedia Iranica , p.
See also H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg " Cyropaedia ", in Encyclopaedia Iranica , on the reliability of Xenophon's account. Dandamaev, Brill, , p. Retrieved 26 December Lucius Flavius Arrianus , en.
Arrian trans. A compendium of classical literature:comprising choice extracts translated from Greek and Roman writers, with biographical sketches.
Persia past and present. The Macmillan Company. The Monthly review. Cyrus influence on persian identity. Alexander the Great. Alexander admiration of cyrus.
Alexander the Great: the invisible enemy. Psychology Press. Cockcroft Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran. Chelsea House Publishers.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Cyrus legacy. The Economist. The Cyropaedia. The Heritage of Persia. World Pub. The Iranian.
Yarshater, for example, rejects that Sassanids remembered Cyrus, whereas R. Frye do propose remembrance and line of continuity: See A.
Shahbazi, Early Sassanians' Claim to Achaemenid Heritage , Namey-e Iran-e Bastan, Vol. Boyce, "The Religion of Cyrus the Great" in A.
Kuhrt and H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg, eds. Method and Theory , Leiden, , p. The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Persia: New Light on the Parthian and Sasanian Empires , Published by I.
Acta Iranica. Retrieved 18 August History Channel. A failed attempt to reconquer Egypt led to a series of revolts by the various satraps of Anatolia between BC which were eventually put down.
As the King of Persia, Artaxerxes II exerted a continued influence over the Greeks by offering subsidies and arbitrating their disagreements almost as though he were their overlord.
He also engaged in numerous building and renovation projects across the empire. His greatest shortcoming, however, was in his family life, as plots amongst his harem led to the deaths of many of his beloved sins and other family members.
Plaster Cast of an Inscription of Artaxerxes III, Achaemenid, 4th Century BC, Persepolis, British Museum. Ochus was a younger son of Artaxerxes II and satrap of Phoenicia who ascended the throne as Artaxerxes III largely because his older brothers had all been eliminated in various plots.
To secure his position as King of Persia, Artaxerxes III soon executed around 80 of his family members. After making peace with Athens he attempted to disband the powerful satrapal armies of the Anatolian satraps; the ensuing revolt took two years to put down.
Artaxerxes III then turned his attention to the re-conquest of Egypt but was defeated. This massive defeat led to revolts in Anatolia, Phoenicia, and Cyprus.
It took seven years for the King of Persia to reassert control, but once he had it was time for another attack of Egypt.
This time Artaxerxes III was successful and after subduing the region he embarked on a campaign to punish the Egyptians for their resistance. Once Artaxerxes II had dealt with these rebellions, he set about solidifying his power and rewarding his followers.
None rose as high as the eunuch Bagoas who was given vast estates and rose to the position of vizier and was responsible for overseeing much of the empire.
The King of Persia also extended his influence into the Aegean, conquering many islands, and into Thrace where he subsidized friendly princes.
Much to the dismay of Athens and the rising power of Macedonia under its king, Philip of Macedon , the Achaemenid Empire was growing strong.
However, it all came crashing down when Artaxerxes sought to curb the power of Bagaos who in response conspired to poison the king and much of his family.
Relief of Median courtier and tribute bearers, Achaemenid Persepolis , ca. Under the guidance of Artaxerxes III, the Achaemenid Empire had been experiencing a general revival of fortunes as it was reorganized and various revolts were suppressed.
Much of this was thanks to the efforts of the Eunuch Bagoas , who rose to the position of vizier and was the real power behind the throne.
When Bagoas fell out of favor with Artaxerxes III he conspired with the royal physician to poison the King of Persia and most of his family.
This sudden change in leadership along with the youth and inexperience of Artaxerxes IV weakened the Achaemenid Empire.
Seizing upon this weakness Philip of Macedon demanded that the King of Persia pay reparations for Achaemenid support of his rivals.
When Artaxerxes IV refused, Philip sent 10, troops into Asia Minor in BC. At the same time, the King of Persia attempted to rid himself of Bagoas, who poisoned Artaxerxes IV and the rest of his family in response.
Later Macedonian propaganda would depict Artaxerxes IV as the last true King of Persia. Detail from Battle of Alexander and Darius at Issus Mosaic , Late 2nd century AD, via Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli.
The last of the official Kings of Persia, Darius was originally from a slightly more junior branch of the Achaemenid royal family and went by the name Artashata.
With little chance to settle into his new position as King of Persia, Darius III soon faced an invasion in the west. When this failed Darius faced Alexander in battle at Issus in BC , and Gaugamela in BC, and was disastrously defeated on both occasions.
Bessus brought into the Presence of Alexander by the school of Ciro Ferri , via The British Museum, London. Unlike the other Kings of Persia, Artaxerxes was a self-proclaimed leader.
He was originally the satrap of Bactria named Bessus. A relative of Darius III, he had commanded the left-wing of the Persian army at the Battle of Gaugamela BC.
The following year he and his fellow satraps betrayed Darius III, placing him in golden chains. It may have been their intention to offer Darius III to Alexander, or perhaps they were simply disillusioned with his leadership.
Darius III was stabbed and left dying on the road. Bessus immediately proclaimed himself King of Persia, since as satrap of Bactria he was next in the line of succession.
Bessus took the name Artaxerxes V and as the new King of Persia fled to the few provinces in Central Asia not yet captured by the Macedonians.
Co-ruled with his father since 12 April Died of natural causes in May Possibly executed during the uprising which had been led by his own grand uncle Narseh.
Enthroned after seizing power from Bahram III in a rebellion led against him. Also known as Narseh II Deposed by Sasanian nobles because of his cruelty.
After the death of his brother, Adarnases, Shapur II was still in his mother's womb when he was crowned. King of Kings of Iran ians and non-Iran ians Ramshahr "peacekeeper in [his] dominion".
King of Kings of Iran ians and non-Iran ians Kirbakkar "beneficent". King of Kings of Iran ians and non-Iran ians Hukay "the good king".
Two rebellions rose from two of Peroz's sons his nephews The first rebellion was from Zarir , but he was unsuccessful and executed The second rebellion was from Kavad , who at first unsuccessful requested help from Hephthalites.
Enthroned after leading a rebellion against his uncle Balash with assistance from Hephthalites. Restored to the throne with the aid of Zarmihr Karen and the Hephthalites.
Rebelled against his father and proclaimed himself as king of Persia, however he was then overthrown by Bahram Chobin.
House of Mihran. Bahram VI Chobin. Rebelled against Hormizd IV and Khosrow II and proclaimed himself to be king. Restored as Sasanian king after defeating Bahram Chobin.
House of Ispahbudhan. Uncle of Khosrow II Founded the city of Bastam. Enthroned after killing his father and eighteen brothers Died after a few months of reign.
Participated at the Siege of Constantinople5/30/ · In ancient history, there were 3 main dynasties that controlled ancient Persia, a western name for the area that is modern Iran: Achaemenids, Parthians, and Sasanids. There was also a period when the Hellenistic Macedonian and Greek successors of Alexander the Great, known as Seleucids, ruled Persia. in hieroglyphs. Xerxes I (Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠, romanized: Xšaya-ṛšā; c. – August BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from to BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great (r. – BC) and his mother was Atossa, a daughter of Cyrus the Great (ymlp118.comessor: Darius the Great. 59 rows · The head of the Sasanian Empire was the [shahanshah] (king of kings), also simply Appointer: Divine right, hereditary. Kings of the Persian Empire. 2 Chronicles - Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD God of heaven given me; and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem, which [is] in Judah. Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کورش Kūroš; c. – BC) commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Cyrus, the King of Persia, was born about BCE (give or take a few years – some say as late at BCE). Most scholars think “Cyrus” derives from Kuros, meaning “sun.” So his name has been interpreted to mean “like the sun.” His father’s name was Cambyses I. Darius the Great, the fourth king of the Achaemenid Empire, ruled over the Persian Empire when it was at its largest, stretching from The Caucasus and West Asia to what was then Macedonia (today. Achaemenid Scaraboid with a Persian King fighting a Greek Hoplite and its impression, BC, via the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Arses was the third son of Xerxes I and became King of Persia following the death of his father at the hands of Artabanus.