Kategorie:Religion (Mittelalter). aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Unterkategorien. Bei ihm findet sich nicht nur die Rückführung späterer Differenzierungsprozesse auf die mittelalterliche. Scheidung von geistlicher und weltlicher Gewalt, sondern. Das Christentum entwickelte sich zu einer Art Staatsreligion. Die christliche Kirche wurde zunehmend zum politischen Machtfaktor in der mittelalterlichen.
BR-NavigationBei ihm findet sich nicht nur die Rückführung späterer Differenzierungsprozesse auf die mittelalterliche. Scheidung von geistlicher und weltlicher Gewalt, sondern. Das Christentum entwickelte sich zu einer Art Staatsreligion. Die christliche Kirche wurde zunehmend zum politischen Machtfaktor in der mittelalterlichen. Kategorie:Religion (Mittelalter). aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Unterkategorien.
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The Byzantines recaptured the city in , but never regained their former strength. Popes called for crusades to take place elsewhere besides the Holy Land: in Spain, southern France, and along the Baltic.
Although the Templars and Hospitallers took part in the Spanish crusades, similar Spanish military religious orders were founded, most of which had become part of the two main orders of Calatrava and Santiago by the beginning of the 12th century.
These crusades also spawned a military order, the Order of the Sword Brothers. Another order, the Teutonic Knights , although founded in the crusader states, focused much of its activity in the Baltic after , and in moved its headquarters to Marienburg in Prussia.
During the 11th century, developments in philosophy and theology led to increased intellectual activity.
There was debate between the realists and the nominalists over the concept of " universals ". Philosophical discourse was stimulated by the rediscovery of Aristotle and his emphasis on empiricism and rationalism.
Scholars such as Peter Abelard d. In the late 11th and early 12th centuries cathedral schools spread throughout Western Europe, signalling the shift of learning from monasteries to cathedrals and towns.
This movement tried to employ a systemic approach to truth and reason  and culminated in the thought of Thomas Aquinas d. Chivalry and the ethos of courtly love developed in royal and noble courts.
This culture was expressed in the vernacular languages rather than Latin, and comprised poems, stories, legends, and popular songs spread by troubadours , or wandering minstrels.
Often the stories were written down in the chansons de geste , or "songs of great deeds", such as The Song of Roland or The Song of Hildebrand.
Legal studies advanced during the 12th century. Both secular law and canon law , or ecclesiastical law, were studied in the High Middle Ages.
Secular law, or Roman law, was advanced greatly by the discovery of the Corpus Juris Civilis in the 11th century, and by Roman law was being taught at Bologna.
This led to the recording and standardisation of legal codes throughout Western Europe. Canon law was also studied, and around a monk named Gratian fl.
Among the results of the Greek and Islamic influence on this period in European history was the replacement of Roman numerals with the decimal positional number system and the invention of algebra , which allowed more advanced mathematics.
Astronomy advanced following the translation of Ptolemy 's Almagest from Greek into Latin in the late 12th century. Medicine was also studied, especially in southern Italy, where Islamic medicine influenced the school at Salerno.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, Europe experienced economic growth and innovations in methods of production.
Major technological advances included the invention of the windmill , the first mechanical clocks, the manufacture of distilled spirits , and the use of the astrolabe.
The development of a three-field rotation system for planting crops  [Z] increased the usage of land from one half in use each year under the old two-field system to two-thirds under the new system, with a consequent increase in production.
Horses are faster than oxen and require less pasture, factors that aided the implementation of the three-field system. The construction of cathedrals and castles advanced building technology, leading to the development of large stone buildings.
Ancillary structures included new town halls, houses, bridges, and tithe barns. Other improvements to ships included the use of lateen sails and the stern-post rudder , both of which increased the speed at which ships could be sailed.
In military affairs, the use of infantry with specialised roles increased. Along with the still-dominant heavy cavalry, armies often included mounted and infantry crossbowmen , as well as sappers and engineers.
Cannon were being used for sieges in the s, and hand-held guns were in use by the s. In the 10th century the establishment of churches and monasteries led to the development of stone architecture that elaborated vernacular Roman forms, from which the term "Romanesque" is derived.
Where available, Roman brick and stone buildings were recycled for their materials. From the tentative beginnings known as the First Romanesque , the style flourished and spread across Europe in a remarkably homogeneous form.
Just before there was a great wave of building stone churches all over Europe. Dodwell , "virtually all the churches in the West were decorated with wall-paintings", of which few survive.
Romanesque art, especially metalwork, was at its most sophisticated in Mosan art , in which distinct artistic personalities including Nicholas of Verdun d.
Large illuminated bibles and psalters were the typical forms of luxury manuscripts, and wall-painting flourished in churches, often following a scheme with a Last Judgement on the west wall, a Christ in Majesty at the east end, and narrative biblical scenes down the nave, or in the best surviving example, at Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe , on the barrel-vaulted roof.
From the early 12th century, French builders developed the Gothic style, marked by the use of rib vaults , pointed arches , flying buttresses , and large stained glass windows.
It was used mainly in churches and cathedrals and continued in use until the 16th century in much of Europe.
Classic examples of Gothic architecture include Chartres Cathedral and Reims Cathedral in France as well as Salisbury Cathedral in England.
During this period the practice of manuscript illumination gradually passed from monasteries to lay workshops, so that according to Janetta Benton "by most monks bought their books in shops",  and the book of hours developed as a form of devotional book for lay-people.
Metalwork continued to be the most prestigious form of art, with Limoges enamel a popular and relatively affordable option for objects such as reliquaries and crosses.
Monastic reform became an important issue during the 11th century, as elites began to worry that monks were not adhering to the rules binding them to a strictly religious life.
It sought to maintain a high quality of spiritual life by placing itself under the protection of the papacy and by electing its own abbot without interference from laymen, thus maintaining economic and political independence from local lords.
Monastic reform inspired change in the secular Church. The ideals upon which it was based were brought to the papacy by Pope Leo IX pope — , and provided the ideology of clerical independence that led to the Investiture Controversy in the late 11th century.
This involved Pope Gregory VII pope —85 and Emperor Henry IV, who initially clashed over episcopal appointments, a dispute that turned into a battle over the ideas of investiture , clerical marriage, and simony.
The emperor saw the protection of the Church as one of his responsibilities as well as wanting to preserve the right to appoint his own choices as bishops within his lands, but the papacy insisted on the Church's independence from secular lords.
These issues remained unresolved after the compromise of known as the Concordat of Worms. The dispute represents a significant stage in the creation of a papal monarchy separate from and equal to lay authorities.
It also had the permanent consequence of empowering German princes at the expense of the German emperors.
The High Middle Ages was a period of great religious movements. Besides the Crusades and monastic reforms, people sought to participate in new forms of religious life.
New monastic orders were founded, including the Carthusians and the Cistercians. The latter, in particular, expanded rapidly in their early years under the guidance of Bernard of Clairvaux d.
These new orders were formed in response to the feeling of the laity that Benedictine monasticism no longer met the needs of the laymen, who along with those wishing to enter the religious life wanted a return to the simpler hermetical monasticism of early Christianity, or to live an Apostolic life.
Old pilgrimage sites such as Rome, Jerusalem, and Compostela received increasing numbers of visitors, and new sites such as Monte Gargano and Bari rose to prominence.
In the 13th century mendicant orders —the Franciscans and the Dominicans —who swore vows of poverty and earned their living by begging, were approved by the papacy.
Others joined the Cathars , another movement condemned as heretical by the papacy. In , a crusade was preached against the Cathars, the Albigensian Crusade , which in combination with the medieval Inquisition , eliminated them.
The first years of the 14th century were marked by famines, culminating in the Great Famine of — These troubles were followed in by the Black Death , a pandemic that spread throughout Europe during the following three years.
Towns were especially hard-hit because of their crowded conditions. Wages rose as landlords sought to entice the reduced number of available workers to their fields.
Further problems were lower rents and lower demand for food, both of which cut into agricultural income.
Urban workers also felt that they had a right to greater earnings, and popular uprisings broke out across Europe. The trauma of the plague led to an increased piety throughout Europe, manifested by the foundation of new charities, the self-mortification of the flagellants , and the scapegoating of Jews.
Society throughout Europe was disturbed by the dislocations caused by the Black Death. Lands that had been marginally productive were abandoned, as the survivors were able to acquire more fertile areas.
Partly at the urging of landlords, governments attempted to legislate a return to the economic conditions that existed before the Black Death.
Jewish communities were expelled from England in and from France in Although some were allowed back into France, most were not, and many Jews emigrated eastwards, settling in Poland and Hungary.
Many banking firms loaned money to royalty, at great risk, as some were bankrupted when kings defaulted on their loans.
Strong, royalty-based nation states rose throughout Europe in the Late Middle Ages, particularly in England , France , and the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula: Aragon , Castile , and Portugal.
The long conflicts of the period strengthened royal control over their kingdoms and were extremely hard on the peasantry.
Kings profited from warfare that extended royal legislation and increased the lands they directly controlled. Throughout the 14th century, French kings sought to expand their influence at the expense of the territorial holdings of the nobility.
Conversely, the Wars had a positive effect on English national identity , doing much to fuse the various local identities into a national English ideal.
The conflict with France also helped create a national culture in England separate from French culture, which had previously been the dominant influence.
In modern-day Germany, the Holy Roman Empire continued to rule, but the elective nature of the imperial crown meant there was no enduring dynasty around which a strong state could form.
The major power around the Baltic Sea was the Hanseatic League, a commercial confederation of city-states that traded from Western Europe to Russia.
Although the Palaeologi emperors recaptured Constantinople from the Western Europeans in , they were never able to regain control of much of the former imperial lands.
They usually controlled only a small section of the Balkan Peninsula near Constantinople, the city itself, and some coastal lands on the Black Sea and around the Aegean Sea.
The former Byzantine lands in the Balkans were divided between the new Kingdom of Serbia , the Second Bulgarian Empire and the city-state of Venice.
The power of the Byzantine emperors was threatened by a new Turkish tribe, the Ottomans , who established themselves in Anatolia in the 13th century and steadily expanded throughout the 14th century.
The Ottomans expanded into Europe, reducing Bulgaria to a vassal state by and taking over Serbia after its defeat at the Battle of Kosovo in Western Europeans rallied to the plight of the Christians in the Balkans and declared a new crusade in ; a great army was sent to the Balkans, where it was defeated at the Battle of Nicopolis.
During the tumultuous 14th century, disputes within the leadership of the Church led to the Avignon Papacy of —76,  also called the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy" a reference to the Babylonian captivity of the Jews ,  and then to the Great Schism , lasting from to , when there were two and later three rival popes, each supported by several states.
Further depositions followed, and in November , the council elected Martin V pope —31 as pope. Besides the schism, the Western Church was riven by theological controversies, some of which turned into heresies.
John Wycliffe d. The Hussite Church, although the target of a crusade, survived beyond the Middle Ages. The papacy further refined the practice in the Mass in the Late Middle Ages, holding that the clergy alone was allowed to partake of the wine in the Eucharist.
This further distanced the secular laity from the clergy. The laity continued the practices of pilgrimages, veneration of relics, and belief in the power of the Devil.
Mystics such as Meister Eckhart d. Besides mysticism, belief in witches and witchcraft became widespread, and by the late 15th century the Church had begun to lend credence to populist fears of witchcraft with its condemnation of witches in , and the publication in of the Malleus Maleficarum , the most popular handbook for witch-hunters.
During the Later Middle Ages, theologians such as John Duns Scotus d. Their efforts undermined the prevailing Platonic idea of universals. Ockham's insistence that reason operates independently of faith allowed science to be separated from theology and philosophy.
The lone exception to this trend was in England, where the common law remained pre-eminent. Other countries codified their laws; legal codes were promulgated in Castile, Poland, and Lithuania.
Education remained mostly focused on the training of future clergy. The basic learning of the letters and numbers remained the province of the family or a village priest, but the secondary subjects of the trivium —grammar, rhetoric, logic—were studied in cathedral schools or in schools provided by cities.
Commercial secondary schools spread, and some Italian towns had more than one such enterprise. Universities also spread throughout Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Lay literacy rates rose, but were still low; one estimate gave a literacy rate of 10 per cent of males and 1 per cent of females in The publication of vernacular literature increased, with Dante d.
Much literature remained religious in character, and although a great deal of it continued to be written in Latin, a new demand developed for saints' lives and other devotional tracts in the vernacular languages.
In the early 15th century, the countries of the Iberian Peninsula began to sponsor exploration beyond the boundaries of Europe. Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal d.
After his death, exploration continued; Bartolomeu Dias d. One of the major developments in the military sphere during the Late Middle Ages was the increased use of infantry and light cavalry.
In agriculture, the increased usage of sheep with long-fibred wool allowed a stronger thread to be spun. In addition, the spinning wheel replaced the traditional distaff for spinning wool, tripling production.
The Late Middle Ages in Europe as a whole correspond to the Trecento and Early Renaissance cultural periods in Italy.
Northern Europe and Spain continued to use Gothic styles, which became increasingly elaborate in the 15th century, until almost the end of the period.
Although royalty owned huge collections of plate, little survives except for the Royal Gold Cup. In France and Flanders tapestry weaving of sets like The Lady and the Unicorn became a major luxury industry.
The large external sculptural schemes of Early Gothic churches gave way to more sculpture inside the building, as tombs became more elaborate and other features such as pulpits were sometimes lavishly carved, as in the Pulpit by Giovanni Pisano in Sant'Andrea.
Painted or carved wooden relief altarpieces became common, especially as churches created many side-chapels.
Early Netherlandish painting by artists such as Jan van Eyck d. From about printed books rapidly became popular, though still expensive.
There were around 30, different editions of incunabula , or works printed before ,  by which time illuminated manuscripts were commissioned only by royalty and a few others.
Very small woodcuts , nearly all religious, were affordable even by peasants in parts of Northern Europe from the middle of the 15th century.
More expensive engravings supplied a wealthier market with a variety of images. The medieval period is frequently caricatured as a "time of ignorance and superstition" that placed "the word of religious authorities over personal experience and rational activity.
Renaissance scholars saw the Middle Ages as a period of decline from the high culture and civilisation of the Classical world.
Enlightenment scholars saw reason as superior to faith, and thus viewed the Middle Ages as a time of ignorance and superstition. Others argue that reason was generally held in high regard during the Middle Ages.
Science historian Edward Grant writes, "If revolutionary rational thoughts were expressed [in the 18th century], they were only made possible because of the long medieval tradition that established the use of reason as one of the most important of human activities".
The caricature of the period is also reflected in some more specific notions. One misconception, first propagated in the 19th century  and still very common, is that all people in the Middle Ages believed that the Earth was flat.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Period of European history from the 5th to the late 15th-century. This article is about medieval Europe.
For a global history of the period between the 5th and 15th centuries, see Post-classical history. For other uses, see Middle Ages disambiguation.
For the dinner theatre, see Medieval Times. Further information: Late Antiquity , Roman Empire , Fall of the Western Roman Empire , and Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties.
Main article: Early Middle Ages. Main articles: Migration Period and fall of the Western Roman Empire. Main articles: Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty and Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty.
See also: Early medieval European dress and medieval cuisine. Main articles: Spread of Islam and Early Muslim conquests.
Expansion under Muhammad, — Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, — Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, — Main article: Medieval economic history.
Main article: Christianity in the Middle Ages. Main articles: Francia and Carolingian Empire. Main article: Carolingian Renaissance.
Main articles: Holy Roman Empire and Viking Age. Territorial divisions of the Carolingian Empire in , , and Main articles: Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty , Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty , First Bulgarian Empire , Christianisation of Bulgaria , Kingdom of Germany , Christianisation of Scandinavia , and Christianisation of Kievan Rus'.
See also: Byzantine—Arab wars — and Byzantine—Bulgarian wars. Main articles: Medieval art and Medieval architecture. See also: Migration Period art , Pre-Romanesque art and architecture , and Carolingian art.
Main article: High Middle Ages. Further information: Agriculture in the Middle Ages. Main articles: England in the Middle Ages , France in the Middle Ages , Germany in the Middle Ages , Italy in the Middle Ages , Scotland in the Middle Ages , Spain in the Middle Ages , and Poland in the Middle Ages.
Main articles: Crusades , Reconquista , and Northern Crusades. See also: Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty and Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty.
Main articles: Renaissance of the 12th century , Medieval philosophy , Medieval literature , Medieval poetry , and Medieval medicine of Western Europe.
Further information: List of medieval European scientists. Further information: Medieval architecture , Medieval art , and Medieval music.
Main articles: Gregorian Reform and Church and state in medieval Europe. Main article: Late Middle Ages.
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Want more? Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! Publication date Topics Physik , Naturwissenschaft , Science , Religion , Mittelalter , Geisteswissenschaft , Geschichte.
Walter Pohl beschäftigt sich mit dem frühen Mittelalter in Europa. Warum ist das Römische Reich untergegangen, wie hat die christliche Religion Identitäten geprägt?
Es sind nicht nur die sinnvolle Gliederung und die spannenden Oberthemen, die hier angesprochen werden, sondern vor allem der Service, der dem Leser geboten wird.
So findet man zur Einleitung jedes Kapitels ein Bild, das auf der Folgeseite erklärt und interpretiert wird. Es gibt Leitfragen, nach denen man sich richten kann, am Rand jedes Textes stehen Anmerkungen, sodass man sich an diesen Schlagwörtern orientieren kann und am Ende jedes Kapitels warten Verständnisfragen und Beispiele für weiterführende Literatur.
Die Alphabetisierungsrate der Bauern war niedrig, sodass sie zum einen nicht in der Bibel lesen konnten, wäre sie in der Sprache der Bauern verfasst gewesen.
Die Sprache der Heiligen Schrift war Latein und somit war auch die Kenntnis dieser Sprache Herrschaftsinstrument.
So war die Auslegung der Heiligen Schrift allein Sache der Geistlichen und sie legten fest, was als gottgefälliges Verhalten galt.
Der Glauben und die Ausübung religiöser Rituale nahmen einen festen Platz im Alltagsleben der Menschen des Mittelalters ein. Das Beten, wie etwa das Sprechen des Tischgebets, war fester Bestandteil des Tagesablaufs.
Gebete für die Ernte und gute Geschäfte sowie für den Segen des Hauses gehörten ebenfalls dazu. Es herrschte der Glaube an Heilige und Schutzheilige.
Magische Kulte wurden seitens der Kirche vielfach als Hexerei und heidnische Verirrungen diffamiert, die als Teufelswerk gebrandmarkt wurden.
Durch Verbote und verhängte Strafen wurden die rituellen kultischen Handlungen nach und nach eingedämmt. Des Weiteren arbeitete die Kirche mit dem Szenario des Jüngsten Gerichts, das sie in den erschreckendsten Farben ausmalte.
Diese Androhung zeigte ihre Wirkung. Daneben bediente sie sich bei Abtrünnigen des Mittels der Exkommunikation. Dieser Ausschluss aus der religiösen Gemeinschaft bei Fehlverhalten war für den Menschen des Mittelalters gleichbedeutend mit dem Ausschluss aus dem jenseitigen Paradies.
Am Ende des 5. Jahrhunderts waren Kirche und Reich in eine Osthälfte, die vom Kaiser dominiert wurde und in eine Westhälfte, in der der Papst herrschte, auseinandergebrochen.
Kaiser und Papst, die eigentlichen Symbole und Garanten christlicher Einheit rivalisierten um die Macht, denn der Kaiser war zugleich die oberste und entscheidende Instanz der Kirche.
Das Machtstreben beider führte die Kirche in eine tiefe Krise, die beinahe in ihren Auflösungsprozess gemündet wäre.Welche Bedeutung hat die Kirche im (christlichen) Mittelalter? Welche Macht übt sie auf die Menschen aus? Wieso haben die Menschen Angst vor dem Fegefeuer un. ymlp118.com ymlp118.com Geo Epoche Christianisierung Gliederung Christentum im Mittelalter -Konstantinische Wende -Kaiser Theodosius der Große erklärte Christentum zur Staatsreligion -nach Eroberung Roms nahmen Germanen das. In the revised and updated edition of his highly praised textbook on the Middle Ages, Harald Müller defines and delineates the Medieval era, shedding light on living conditions and world views. He examines patterns of community as well as forms and structures of rule. The textbook also covers communication and culture, the organization and transmission of knowledge, and geographic and. Glaubenskriege im Mittelalter. Die Kreuzzüge verbindet man am stärksten mit Glaubenskonflikten im Mittelalter. Die Kreuzzüge waren Kriegszüge, welche vornehmlich im Namen des Christentums gegen das Morgenland, also die Religion des Islam geführt wurden. Die Kreuzzüge waren dabei nicht nur religiös, sondern auch strategisch und. The High Middle Ages was a period of great religious movements. Besides the Crusades and monastic reforms, people sought to participate in new forms of religious life. New monastic orders were founded, including the Carthusians and the Cistercians. Der Apple Entsperren und die Ausübung religiöser Rituale nahmen einen festen Platz im Alltagsleben der Menschen des Mittelalters ein. Wie schon fides und He Man Burg auch synonym verwendet werden konnten, ist dies auch bei lex und natio der Fall. Casanova12f. Jahrhunderts erlebt und erfahren wurde. These changes from Latin to the new languages took many centuries. Eventually, Louis recognised his eldest son Lothair I d. Im Frühmittelalter führte bereits das Aussprechen des Wunsches zur Auflösung der Ehe zum Vollzug. Most of the surviving information available to historians comes from archaeology ; few detailed written records documenting peasant life remain from before the 9th century. EMBED for wordpress. The migrations and invasions of the 4th and 5th centuries disrupted trade Sky Reset around the Mediterranean. Die Mitglieder des dritten Standes mögen die harten Lebensbedingungen, die ihnen auferlegt waren, wohl auch beklagt haben, aufbegehrt haben sie jedoch höchst selten. Das Mittelalter Alltag Geschichte Gesellschaft Kultur Unutymedia. Appeals from the crusader states to the papacy led to further crusades,  such as the Third CrusadeThe Mick Bs to Religion Mittelalter to regain Jerusalem, which had been captured by Saladin d. Video Audio icon An illustration of an audio speaker. It began gradually, but by the late Eddie Redmayne Filme Slavic tribes were in Thrace and Illyriumand had defeated an imperial Alle Jacky Chan Filme near Adrianople in Ilardi, Vincent During this period the practice of manuscript illumination gradually passed from monasteries to lay workshops, so that according to Janetta Benton "by most monks bought their books in shops",  and the book of hours developed as a form of devotional book for lay-people.